Screening and Diagnostics
The widespread utilization of routine cervical cancer screening has greatly enhanced physicians' ability to detect cancerous and precancerous changes of the cervix. Worldwide, the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in as many as 99.7% of cervical cancer. It is estimated that 50% of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer have never had a Papanicolaou test, and 10% have not had a Papanicolaou test in the 5 years prior to diagnosis. Sadly, despite widespread screening and treatment of pre-invasive lesions, there are still approximately 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United Kingdom each year and roughly 4,000 annual deaths from the disease. All pregnancy tests work by detecting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The diagnosis of pregnancy requires a multifaceted approach using 3 main diagnostic tools. These are history and physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and ultrasonography.